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LightHouse Hotel

感谢Margot Krasojević Architecture的分享 | Thanks for share of Margot Krasojević Architecture

韩国,济州岛 | Cheju, South Korea

该项目是一个海上灯塔酒店。设计标准涉及可再生能源,利用建筑形式利用波浪能发电。

The project brief is to design an offshore lighthouse hotel. The design criteria address renewable energy, harnessing wave energy to generate electricity by using the building’s form.

新的建筑形态应该取代冗余的建筑模式,在各种项目之间建立共生关系,并通过利用可再生能源作为建筑基础设施的一部分来支持可再生能源,通过跨学科研究来帮助定义可持续发展。

灯塔酒店目前的位置是在韩国大陆海岸附近的济州岛附近,在1500 – 7000英尺深水域可通过船舶进入。韩国拥有大量的海上风力发电站,自2006年以来,韩国已在造船场投资生产大型风力涡轮机和石油钻井平台。工业和造船承包商一直在制造风力涡轮机,Krasojević女士认为,造船业和海洋工程可以激发建筑过程,集中精力利用可再生能源,在恶劣的环境中(如公海)高效地工作,同时保护环境。灯塔酒店重新占用了一个现有的石油钻井平台,使用张力腿平台作为结构支撑,酒店是在其上设计的。

New building typologies should replace redundant ones, creating symbiotic relationships between various programs and supporting renewable energy by harnessing it as part of the building’s infrastructure, whereby interdisciplinary research helps define sustainable appropriation.

The lighthouse hotel’s current location is off the coast of mainland South Korea near the island of Jeju, The site is accessible by boat through waters between 1500 ‒ 7000 ft deep. South Korea has a large number of offshore wind turbine farms, and since 2006 has invested in producing large-sized wind turbines and oil rigs in their shipbuilding yards. Industrial and shipbuilding contractors have been fabricating the wind turbines, and Ms Krasojević believes that the shipbuilding industry along with marine engineering can inspire building processes that focus on harnessing renewable energy to perform efficiently in difficult environments like the open sea, whilst protecting the environment. The lighthouse hotel reappropriates an existing oil rig, using the tension leg platform for structural support onto which the hotel is designed.

灯塔酒店设计由三个建筑元素组成,包括酒店的生活区、大厅和社交区。分层的铝表面立面,包裹在酒店的建筑构件周围,悬挂在旋转的一次结构上,包围着翻转翼涡轮,当它们下降到海里时产生电能。海水冲进铝板,翻转着水电涡轮机,这些涡轮机像藤壶一样夹在铝层表面之间。流动的涡轮机随着水流流过而弯曲,类似于振荡波浪涌转换器。翻转翼与高度相连,高度将稳固地固定住涡轮,允许翼片前后摆动以获得更大的效果。

涡轮仰角的运动由转轮液压框架段进行编排。主结构螺栓固定在主结构上,减少了运动载荷和载荷重分布载荷变化引起的疲劳应力。主转轮移动和倾斜,根据风和波的方向降低和旋转高度,以获得最佳的产生的能量。

将涡轮提升出水面,最大限度地减少海水的腐蚀;所有使用的材料都很容易获得和更换,而包层采用模块化的格式,使其更容易修复。当涡轮停止转动时,它平躺在仰角上。与螺旋桨涡轮机相比,它们坚固耐用,更容易垂直放置,价格便宜,但效率不高,这就是为什么在这种方案中,它们是分层的。牺牲阳极分散在整个结构中,以消除腐蚀;由于锌的负电化学势比钢大,阳极保护了原结构不受海洋生物淤积的影响。

The lighthouse hotel design is made up of three building elements that contain the hotel’s living, lobby and social areas. Layered aluminium surface elevations, which are wrapped around the hotel’ s building elements and suspended from the pivoting primary structure, enclose flip-wing turbines to produce electrical energy when they are lowered into the sea. Seawater crashes into the aluminium panels, flipping over the hydropower turbines that are caught like barnacles between the layers of aluminium clad surfaces. The flowing turbines flex as water flows over them, similar to an oscillating wave surge converter. The flip wings are connected to the elevations which will securely hold the turbine, allowing the fins to oscillate backwards and forwards for greater effect.

The turbine elevation movements are choreographed by the pivot wheel hydraulic frame section. This pivot wheel is bolted to the primary structure to reduce fatigue stress caused by changing loads due to movement and load redistribution. The pivot wheel moves and tilts, lowering and revolving the elevations according to wind and wave direction for optimum generated energy.

Lifting the turbine elevations out of the water minimises saltwater corrosion; all the materials used are easy to procure and replace, while the cladding comes in a modular format, making it easier to repair. The turbines lie flat against the elevation when inactive. They are robust, easier to position vertically and cheap in comparison to propeller turbines, although not as efficient, which is why they are layered in this scheme. Sacrificial anodes are scattered throughout the structure so as to negate corrosion; as Zinc has higher negative electrochemical potential than steel, the anodes protect the primary structure from marine biofouling.

流动的涡轮机将动能转化为电能,产生的电能足以运行灯塔和海水淡化过滤器。任何多余的能量都会被储存起来。该过程还旨在通过储存雨水、淡化海水、实施灰水系统和回收水来减少水的消耗。

灯塔酒店坐落在一个张力腿平台上,其工作原理与紧绷的系泊浮标相同。系留的浮力结构是一艘大型半潜式浮力船,使用重重力真空锚将其固定在海床上。通过调整浮式平台的浮力来维持这些垂直电缆的拉力,确保在任何时候都处于正拉力状态。该方法将平台的海洋响应有效地降低到垂直方向为零,水平方向为零。可以根据需要进一步减少水平漂移。利用浮力对抗张力系泊系统,可以使用半潜式浮动平台,它可以通过增加浮力来平衡额外的负载。

The flowing turbines convert kinetic water energy into electrical energy, generating enough to run the lighthouse and desalination filters. Any surplus energy is stored. The process also aims to reduce water consumption by storing rainwater, desalinating seawater, implementing grey-water systems and reclaiming water.

The lighthouse hotel sits on a tension leg platform which works in the same way as a taut, moored buoy. The tethered buoyant structure is a large, semi-submersible floating vessel, which uses a heavy gravity vacuum anchor that fastens it to the seabed. The tension force is maintained in these vertical cables by adjusting the buoyancy of the floating platform, ensuring positive tension at all times. This method reduces marine response in the platform to effectively zero in vertical terms and very little horizontally. Horizontal drift can be further reduced as required. Using buoyancy against a tension mooring system allows the use of a semi-submersible floating platform, which can carry an additional load that it balances out by increasing buoyancy.

酒店是由一系列部分膨胀,成型的ETFE膜段。轻而耐用,这些气闸部分分开,漂浮在流氓波或紧急情况下。位于酒店顶部的灯屋,在暴风雨中海拔较低时就会显露出来。菲涅耳玻璃灯照亮了整个区域,创造了一个明亮的玻璃顶棚大厅。折射后的光线会随着光束进入或进入周围环境而增强,模糊了室内外空间的边缘。

The hotel is fabricated from a series of partly inflated, moulded ETFE membrane sections. Lightweight yet durable, these airlock sections split apart and float in the event of a rogue wave or an emergency. The lantern room, located at the top of the hotel, is revealed when the elevations lower during storms. The Fresnel glass lantern light projects out over the entire area, creating an illuminated glass canopy lobby. The refracted light intensifies as it beams through and out into its surroundings, blurring the edges between interior and exterior space.

最初的设计设想在海拔高度内储存水作为势能;这些高地实际上是水电站。然而,充满水的立面的重量会对结构造成太大的压力,需要定期维护,增加了酒店的运营成本。高程内的小块区域将填满海水并储存起来,直到产生电能所需的潜在动能,其作用方式类似于高低水库大坝。海拔高度通过嵌入式涡轮机释放储存的海水。在暴风雨中,储存在高地的海水支撑着灯塔抵御风和水的力量。

主要关注这种设计方法是水库的不同高度,这需要注入的水升高时期水库低需求,向外公布当需求或系统高代低,从而降低整个过程的效率,因为这个能源消耗;而决定新技术的最重要的因素是,它能否有效地解决能源生产产出与足够的能源生产的能源投入之间的矛盾。与所有的技术应用一样,这些设计需要经过测试,以便重新校准它们,使其在设计中更节能、更易于理解。

沉箱基础和重力锚固定张力腿平台,使没有垂直运动,唯一的水平位移保持在最小。该平台由钢缆固定,钢缆通过重力锚嵌入海底。石油钻井平台的建造启发了灯塔的整体结构设计。在风暴中,悬浮的高度被适当地降低,这样灯塔发出的光就能投射到海面上。由于技术和功能陈旧,越来越多的灯塔正在退役,而其余的灯塔则在GPS或电子导航失灵时发挥作用。

The original design envisaged storing water within the elevations as potential energy; the elevations are in effect the hydroelectric station. However, the weight of the water-filled elevations would place too much stress on the structure which would need to be maintained regularly, increasing the cost of running the hotel. Pockets within the elevation would fill with sea water and store it until this potential kinetic energy is needed to generate electricity, acting in a manner similar to high and low reservoir dams. The elevations release the stored sea water back through the embedded turbines. During a storm, seawater stored within the elevations braces the lighthouse against wind and water forces.

A primary concern with this design approach is the different heights of the water reservoirs, which requires water to be pumped into the elevated reservoirs during periods of low demand, to be released for generation when demand is high or system generation is low, thus reducing the overall process efficiency because of this energy consumption; whereas the most significant factor that determines new technology is whether it effectively addresses the energy production output vs the energy input for a sufficient amount of energy produced. As with all technological applications, these designs need to be tested in order to recalibrate them to be a more energy efficient and comprehensible presence in design.

Caisson foundations and gravity anchors secure the tension leg platform so that there is no vertical movement, the only horizontal displacement which is kept to a minimum. The platform is held in place by steel tension cables embedded into the ocean floor using a gravity anchor. Oil rig construction has inspired the overall structural design of the lighthouse. During storms, the suspended elevations are lowered just enough, so that the light emitted by the beacon projects over the sea elevations. An increasing number of lighthouses are being decommissioned because of technological and functional obsolescence, whereas the remaining lighthouses come into play in case of GPS or electronic navigational failures.

涡轮仰角的运动由转轮液压框架段进行编排。主结构螺栓固定在主结构上,减少了运动载荷和载荷重分布载荷变化引起的疲劳应力。主转轮移动和倾斜,根据风和波的方向降低和旋转高度,以获得最佳的产生的能量。

将涡轮提升出水面,最大限度地减少海水的腐蚀;所有使用的材料都很容易获得和更换,而包层采用模块化的格式,使其更容易修复。当涡轮停止转动时,它平躺在仰角上。与螺旋桨涡轮机相比,它们坚固耐用,更容易垂直放置,价格便宜,但效率不高,这就是为什么在这种方案中,它们是分层的。牺牲阳极分散在整个结构中,以消除腐蚀;由于锌的负电化学势比钢大,阳极保护了原结构不受海洋生物淤积的影响。

涡轮仰角的运动由转轮液压框架段进行编排。主结构螺栓固定在主结构上,减少了运动载荷和载荷重分布载荷变化引起的疲劳应力。主转轮移动和倾斜,根据风和波的方向降低和旋转高度,以获得最佳的产生的能量。

将涡轮提升出水面,最大限度地减少海水的腐蚀;所有使用的材料都很容易获得和更换,而包层采用模块化的格式,使其更容易修复。当涡轮停止转动时,它平躺在仰角上。与螺旋桨涡轮机相比,它们坚固耐用,更容易垂直放置,价格便宜,但效率不高,这就是为什么在这种方案中,它们是分层的。牺牲阳极分散在整个结构中,以消除腐蚀;由于锌的负电化学势比钢大,阳极保护了原结构不受海洋生物淤积的影响。

流动的涡轮机将动能转化为电能,产生的电能足以运行灯塔和海水淡化过滤器。任何多余的能量都会被储存起来。该过程还旨在通过储存雨水、淡化海水、实施灰水系统和回收水来减少水的消耗。

灯塔酒店坐落在一个张力腿平台上,其工作原理与紧绷的系泊浮标相同。系留的浮力结构是一艘大型半潜式浮力船,使用重重力真空锚将其固定在海床上。通过调整浮式平台的浮力来维持这些垂直电缆的拉力,确保在任何时候都处于正拉力状态。该方法将平台的海洋响应有效地降低到垂直方向为零,水平方向为零。可以根据需要进一步减少水平漂移。利用浮力对抗张力系泊系统,可以使用半潜式浮动平台,它可以通过增加浮力来平衡额外的负载。

酒店必须重新塑造自己的形象,以适应不断变化的趋势和顾客的需求。从比特币的使用、智能材料和生物多样性,到太空旅行的款待,技术领域和金融领域都存在这种潜在的过时现象。我们正日益成为一个依赖社会平台补偿和先例的社会,因为我们努力被接受、相关和知情,正因为如此,我们更容易受到影响,尝试新的选择。越来越多的“专家”决定了我们对可持续发展的外围理解,我们可以听取的专家有很多。然而,事实是,无论是在旅游还是在回收利用方面,我们都在不断地接触到我们现有信念的改善。随着环境意识的增强,或者在选择度假时可以获得的丰富经验和主题,我们现在可以进行实验,成为冒险家和探险家。不可避免的是,酒店业需要迎头赶上。更重要的是,酒店是暂时的,需要重新塑造自己,以及旅游业和酒店业的体验,以避免在类型上变得多余。Krasojević女士认为cross-programmatic方法将确保可持续性和可再生能源保持在最前沿的设计标准和程序。酒店经常进行创新,它们可以提供实验性的设计方法,以满足那些希望体验独特度假体验的个人。灯塔酒店为客人提供志愿者参与生物多样性和可再生能源的机会。使旅行者能够挑战自我,参与保护工作,积极促进保护生态系统,将是一种革命性的旅行体验。这可能意味着任何事情,从提供一个离线冥想静修到促进非营利组织的志愿者工作。

海洋和海水设计应采用可再生能源。海洋是大面积的海水,海水变暖并保留太阳能;70%的地球表面被水覆盖,水可以捕获阳光,并将其转化为可用的电能。唯一的问题是,深海温度的差异,从冷水到温水,涉及到使用大量的能量来提取海洋的热能。使用沸点较低的氨将降低提取过程所需的能量,但这仍然是有益的吗?在寻找最有效的提取海洋热能的方法方面还没有进行足够的研究。温暖和寒冷的海水都被泵入热交换器,将不同的液体分开。常温下沸点较低的氨被送入一个换热器。相邻热交换器中的温暖海水将氨煮沸,产生蒸汽。增压的蒸汽通过一根管道来驱动涡轮,涡轮与发电机相连产生电能。氨蒸汽离开涡轮后,通过一根管子下降到一个被冷海水管包围的房间。氨蒸汽冷却后又变成液体,从而继续循环;这不是最有效的过程,但肯定是一个开端。

Krasojević女士认为我们应该整合可再生能源作为一个设计过程的一部分,通过定义类型学之间的共生关系;例如,拥有发电厂的酒店可以产生足够的能量来维持建筑,并抛弃冗余的类型学来重新定义新的类型学,作为一种跨规划、跨学科的努力。要记住的最重要的问题之一是确保有关可再生能源、保护和可持续性的技术的实施不会对我们正在利用的生态系统产生负面影响。这就是为什么,她认为,我们需要结合功能来产生能量;一个增强和拥抱生态系统的发电厂,而不是不顾后果地利用生态系统来发电。海岸外的建筑通过向海洋泄漏结构维护污染物来改变它们的直接环境。移动的设备部件会伤害当地或迁徙的野生动物,甚至静态的设备也会改变动物的繁殖和进食行为,因为它们不得不避开这些设备。生态系统也可能受到改变或从物理环境中移走能量的影响,而设备可以改变水流,这可能会影响水质、浪高、营养物质的输送和确保海岸保护的沉积物的自然运输。这些影响最终会破坏食物网和生态系统的稳定。总之,为了在保护环境的自然特性的同时利用可再生能源,我们仍然面临着人工和人工之间微妙的平衡——什么时候该主张,什么时候该屈从,什么时候该改变,甚至什么时候该暂停。我们可以对气候变化采取更强硬的态度,即使变化正在以一种积极的方式发生;诀窍在于知道何时以及干预的程度。即使是可再生能源生产,这些方法往往对环境和财政成本都有负面影响,而不是在提高效率的同时降低运营成本。不过,这不应使我们气馁。未来的方法是进行更多的研究,通过创建新的或回收旧的建筑类型来重新定义过时的建筑类型。

The turbine elevation movements are choreographed by the pivot wheel hydraulic frame section. This pivot wheel is bolted to the primary structure to reduce fatigue stress caused by changing loads due to movement and load redistribution. The pivot wheel moves and tilts, lowering and revolving the elevations according to wind and wave direction for optimum generated energy.

Lifting the turbine elevations out of the water minimises saltwater corrosion; all the materials used are easy to procure and replace, while the cladding comes in a modular format, making it easier to repair. The turbines lie flat against the elevation when inactive. They are robust, easier to position vertically and cheap in comparison to propeller turbines, although not as efficient, which is why they are layered in this scheme. Sacrificial anodes are scattered throughout the structure so as to negate corrosion; as Zinc has higher negative electrochemical potential than steel, the anodes protect the primary structure from marine biofouling.

The flowing turbines convert kinetic water energy into electrical energy, generating enough to run the lighthouse and desalination filters. Any surplus energy is stored. The process also aims to reduce water consumption by storing rainwater, desalinating seawater, implementing grey-water systems and reclaiming water.

The lighthouse hotel sits on a tension leg platform which works in the same way as a taut, moored buoy. The tethered buoyant structure is a large, semi-submersible floating vessel, which uses a heavy gravity vacuum anchor that fastens it to the seabed. The tension force is maintained in these vertical cables by adjusting the buoyancy of the floating platform, ensuring positive tension at all times. This method reduces marine response in the platform to effectively zero in vertical terms and very little horizontally. Horizontal drift can be further reduced as required. Using buoyancy against a tension mooring system allows the use of a semi-submersible floating platform, which can carry an additional load that it balances out by increasing buoyancy.

A hotel has to regenerate its identity to keep up with changing trends and customer demands. Such potential obsolescence exists in technology as it does in finance, from the use of Bitcoins, smart materials and biodiversity to space travel hospitality. We are increasingly becoming a society reliant on social platform reimbursements and precedents, as we strive to be accepted, relevant and informed, because of which we are more readily influenced to experiment with new choices. More and more “experts” dictate our peripheral understanding of sustainability, and there are many we could listen to. The truth, however, is that we are constantly being exposed to improvements to our current persuasions, whether in travel or recycling. Given increasing environmental awareness or the wide range of experiences and themes available when choosing vacations, we can now experiment and become adventurers and explorers. Inevitably, the hotel industry needs to keep up. This is more so because hotels are temporal, needing to reinvent themselves and the tourism and hospitality experience in order to avoid becoming typologically redundant. Ms Krasojević believes a cross-programmatic approach will ensure that sustainability and renewable energy remain at the forefront of design criteria and programs. Hotels frequently innovate, and they can accommodate experimental design approaches catering to individuals who want to experience a unique getaway. The lighthouse hotel offers volunteer opportunities for guests to engage with biodiversity and renewable energy. Enabling travellers to challenge themselves and to engage with conservation efforts, positively contributing to protecting ecosystems, will be a transformational travel experience. This could mean anything from offering an off-the-grid meditation retreat to facilitating volunteer work with non-profit organisations.

Ocean and seawater designs should embrace renewable energy. The oceans are vast areas of seawater which warm up and retain solar energy; 70% of the earth’s surface is covered by water, which captures sunlight that can be transformed into useable electrical energy. The only problem is, the difference between the depth temperatures, from cool to warm water, involves using a lot of energy to extract the ocean’s thermal energy. Using ammonia which has a lower boiling point will lower the energy needed for the extraction process, but is it still beneficial? Not enough research has been done to find the most efficient manner to extract ocean thermal energy. Both warm and cold seawater is pumped into heat exchangers that separate the different fluids. Ammonia, which has a low boiling point of room temperature, is fed into one heat exchanger. The warm seawater in an adjacent heat exchanger boils the ammonia to create vapour. The pressurised vapour goes through a pipe to run a turbine connected to a generator that produces electricity. After the ammonia vapour leaves the turbine, it descends through a pipe into a chamber surrounded by tubes of cold seawater. The ammonia vapour is cooled and becomes a liquid again, thus continuing the cycle; not the most efficient of processes, but a beginning, certainly.

Ms Krasojević believes we should integrate renewable energy as a part of the design process by defining symbiotic relationships between typologies; for example, hotels with power plants that can generate enough energy to sustain the building, and discarding redundant typologies in order to redefine new ones, as a cross-programmatic, cross-disciplinary effort. One of the most important issues to keep in mind is ensuring that the implementation of technologies dealing with renewable energy, conservation and sustainability does not negatively affect the ecosystems which we are tapping into. This is why, she believes, we need to combine functions in order to produce energy; a power plant that enhances and embraces the ecosystem rather than exploits it to generate energy regardless of repercussions. Off-coast constructions alter their immediate environment by leaking structural maintenance pollutants into the sea. The moving parts of devices can harm resident or migratory wildlife, even static installations can alter breeding and feeding behaviour through animals having to avoid the devices. Ecosystems can also be affected by altering or removing energy from the physical environment, and devices can change water flow, which may affect water quality, wave height, the delivery of nutrients and the natural transport of sediment that ensures coastal protection. These impacts could eventually disrupt food webs and the stability of the ecosystem. To conclude, we still face the delicate balance between artificial and manmade—when to claim, be subservient, alter or even pause—in order to harness renewable energy whilst protecting the natural character of the environment. We can afford to be a little tougher with the changing climate, even as change is happening and in an aggressive manner; the trick is knowing when and how much to intervene. Even with renewable energy production, the methods often negatively contribute to both environmental and financial costs rather than reducing operational costs whilst increasing efficiency. This should not discourage us, though. The way forward is to research more and redefine obsolete building typologies by creating new ones or recycling the old.

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